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Do you know about vine pruning?

Vine pruning is the practice carried out by the winegrower to reduce the vegetative part of the vine with the aim of limiting its natural growth and improving the yield and quality of the grapes.

The vine is a plant with a characteristic cycle in temperate zones that begins with bud break in early spring to conclude with leaf fall in autumn. It is important to note that even respecting the natural biological cycle of the plant, Every cultivated vine always has to be perfected in its evolution by the hand of man, hence a series of field practices including pruning.

The vine is a tree-like, climbing plant with unlimited growth. so you have to control it. This is where the pruning technique is necessary to shape the vineyard and at the same time favor the correct development of the vegetation in general and the fruit in particular.

The pruning process must be carried out at the right times. In the middle of winter the plant is in dormancy and vegetative rest, and it will be the right time for this work. In addition to the winter or main pruning, various pruning is done throughout the year, such as spring green pruning. . Pruning is one of the most important operations to subsequently obtain healthy grapes., ripe, and above all of quality, to make good wine.

In its natural state, the vine is a climbing liana whose branches, called shoots, can reach up to 30 meters in length. Only the buds located at the ends prosper because they receive more sap, and the buds located closer to the trunk do not sprout.

Fruit production is not proportional to the leafy development of the vine. Although it produces numerous clusters, the grapes are small in size and ripen with difficulty, so their quality is very poor.The objective of pruning is to reduce the number and length of the shoots so that the vine produces fewer clusters., but thicker and better quality. Pruning lengthens the life of the vine and ensures the harvest from one year to the next. It also allows the size of the plant to be adapted to the space where it is grown to facilitate the viticulturist's tasks.

Formation pruning

When the vine is young and has just been planted, the first pruning determines the shape and type of growth of the plant. These vary depending on the climate of the region and the type of strain or variety.

There are different types of training pruning depending on the conduction system or trellis chosen. This type of pruning is usually carried out during the first three or four years, and always in winter and spring.

Fruiting pruning

When the vine has acquired its final shape, fruiting pruning serves to maintain the shape of the vine and control its growth.

The selection and reduction of the shoots and buds that sprout each year will allow the grape clusters to benefit from greater sunshine and better ventilation. This will increase its yield, quality and resistance to pests.

Winter pruning or dry pruning

It is carried out every winter, after the leaves fall and before the new shoots emerge again, when the plant is in a vegetative or dormant state and sap circulation has decreased.

It serves to eliminate the shoots from the previous season and trim wood that is two years old or older, and favors the regeneration of the plant.

Pruning should not be done in temperatures that are too low because frost makes the wood brittle and it can splinter when cut. Furthermore, with temperatures below zero the wood takes longer to heal and is at greater risk of suffering from diseases such as tinder and eutypiosis.

Pruning in green

It complements winter pruning and is carried out only if the shoots have grown too much, to reduce the yield of the plant and thus obtain better quality grapes.

It is done at the end of spring, once the vine has sprouted. The buds, the young green shoots or shoots, the excess leaves are eliminated to unload the plant, and the poorly located shoots that will be poorly fertile are also eliminated - located, for example, too close to the ground or to which sunlight does not reach well.

 

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